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Philip Tabor states the contribution of 17th century Dutch houses as the foundation of houses today: "As far as the idea of the home is concerned, the home of the home is the Netherlands. This idea's crystallization might be dated to the first three-quarters of the seventeenth century, when the Dutch Netherlands amassed the unprecedented and unrivalled accumulation of capital, and emptied their purses into domestic space.

This was due to their embracing "self-reliance", in contrast to the dependence on servants, and a design for a lifestyle centered on the family. It was important for the Dutch to separate work from domesticity, as the home became an escape and a place of comfort. This way of living and the home has been noted as highly similar to the contemporary family and their dwellings. House layouts also incorporated the idea of the corridor as well as the importance of function and privacy. By the end of the 17th Century, the house layout was soon transformed to become employment-free, enforcing these ideas for the future.

This came in favour for the industrial revolution, gaining large-scale factory production and workers. The house layout of the Dutch and its functions are still relevant today. Dutch Hegemony and Contemporary Globalization. Fitzpatrick, P. Jones, C. Knellwolf and I. McCalman eds. London: Routledge, p.

In Hamowy, Ronald ed. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Although today we can easily find much to criticize about the Dutch Republic, it remains a crucial early experiment in toleration, limited government, and commercial capitalism Dutch shipping, banking, commerce, and credit raised living standards for the rich and the poor alike and for the first time created that characteristically modern social phenomenon, a middle class Libertarians value the Dutch Republic as a historical phenomenon not because it represented any sort of perfection, but above all because it demonstrated to several generations of intellectuals the practicality of allowing citizens greater liberties than were customarily accorded them, which in turn contributed to producing what we now know as classical liberalism.

Mises Daily.

Retrieved 30 August As the modern age began, rulers started to shake free of age-old customary constraints on their power. Royal absolutism became the main tendency of the time. The kings of Europe raised a novel claim: they declared that they were appointed by God to be the fountainhead of all life and activity in society.

Accordingly, they sought to direct religion, culture, politics, and, especially, the economic life of the people. To support their burgeoning bureaucracies and constant wars, the rulers required ever-increasing quantities of taxes, which they tried to squeeze out of their subjects in ways that were contrary to precedent and custom. The first people to revolt against this system were the Dutch. After a struggle that lasted for decades, they won their independence from Spain and proceeded to set up a unique polity.

The United Provinces, as the radically decentralized state was called, had no king and little power at the federal level. Making money was the passion of these busy manufacturers and traders; they had no time for hunting heretics or suppressing new ideas. Thus de facto religious toleration and a wide-ranging freedom of the press came to prevail. Devoted to industry and trade, the Dutch established a legal system based solidly on the rule of law and the sanctity of property and contract.

Taxes were low, and everyone worked. The Dutch "economic miracle" was the wonder of the age. Thoughtful observers throughout Europe noted the Dutch success with great interest. Liberalism has many meanings, but in its classical sense it is a philosophy based on individual freedom.

History has long taught that our modern sensibility comes from the eighteenth century Enlightenment. In recent decades, historians have seen the Dutch Enlightenment of the seventeenth century as the root of the wider Enlightenment. Socialist Worker. Retrieved 6 May Until the 17th century, commissioning works of art was largely the preserve of the church , monarchs and aristocrats.

The emergence of a powerful and wealthy middle class in Holland , though, produced a radical change in patronage as the new Dutch bourgeoisie bought art. For the first time, the direction of art was shaped by relatively broadly-based demand rather than religious dogma or royal whim, and the result was the birth of a large-scale open free art market which today's dealers and collectors would find familiar.

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Retrieved 11 November The first major innovation was the foundation of the Dutch East India Company VOC , the world's first publicly traded company , in As the first listed company the first company to be ever listed on an official stock exchange , the VOC was the first company to actually issue stock and bonds to the general public.

Considered by many experts to be the world's first truly modern multinational corporation , the VOC was also the first permanently organized limited-liability joint-stock company , with a permanent capital base. The Dutch merchants were the pioneers in laying the basis for modern corporate governance.

The VOC is often considered as the precursor of modern corporations , if not the first truly modern corporation. It was the VOC that invented the idea of investing in the company rather than in a specific venture governed by the company. With its pioneering features such as corporate identity first globally-recognized corporate logo , entrepreneurial spirit, legal personhood , transnational multinational operational structure, high stable profitability, permanent capital fixed capital stock , freely transferable shares and tradable securities , separation of ownership and management , and limited liability for both shareholders and managers, the VOC is generally considered a major institutional breakthrough and the model for the large-scale business enterprises that now dominate the global economy.

Introduction

The second major innovation was the creation of the world's first fully functioning financial market , with the birth of a fully fledged capital market. Based on findings in the literature, this study aims to contribute to the knowledge base on measuring INQUA and on its role in the international aim for high achievement and equity. In Flanders, data was collected from students in classes from schools. In Germany, students from classes in schools participated. In Norway, students from classes in schools participated.

Instruments were administered in the official language of respective educational systems, i. SC was measured in Flanders and Germany through the use of five items. The CA scale consisted of seven items. In line with the prescribed use by von Davier et al. We used books at home as an indicator of socio-economic status SES , Footnote 2 distinguishing five categories, ranging from 1 0—10 books at home to 5 more than books at home.

They were taken into account as control variables in RQ2.

Multilevel structural equation modelling SEM Nachtigall et al. Student participants were nested within classes to investigate INQUA as a class construct and to come to terms with the hierarchical structure of the data. Footnote 5. Measurement invariance was partially reached in previous research Wendt et al.

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Lists of Dutch inventions and discoveries - Wikipedia

However, we opted for separate analyses in each educational system in order to investigate the structure of the data more closely in each system. This decision was made because Norway used a different SC scale and because Wendt et al. This implies that whenever comparisons between educational systems are made in the rest of this article they are descriptive in nature rather than tested in a statistical model.

To answer RQ1, in a first step we calculated intra-class correlation coefficients ICCs and performed confirmatory factor analyses CFA to investigate to what extent our data provide evidence for the three dimensions of INQUA as classroom constructs. Whereas ICC[1] is merely the proportion of variance at the group level Raudenbush and Bryk , ICC[2] is calculated to evaluate the reliability of the group mean Bliese , taking the group size k into account. ICC[2] is defined as Bliese :. If not all groups are of the same size, in most cases the mean group size can be chosen Bliese , which was performed by this study.

Secondly, a CFA model was estimates see Fig. In this CFA, students with missing data on all scale items were excluded, leading to the exclusion of 82 students in Flanders, students in Germany and 28 students in Norway. This approach was suggested by Scherer et al. In line with the recommendation of Geldhof et al. The level-specific parameter estimates were used to calculate the respective within and between composite reliability.

Values of.

The final factor structure found in RQ1 was further extended with structural relations between the latent variables in order to answer RQ2 and RQ3. Full information maximum likelihood FIML estimation was used to handle missing data. As FIML is not available in MPlus in random slope moderation models, cases with missing scores on the interaction variables were deleted. Footnote 6 Factor loadings and significance of the moderation terms included were investigated to answer RQ3. In modelling a between-level construct, we always also included, as suggested by Marsh et al.

To account for the unequal probability of classes and students to be selected in the sample due to the two-stage sample design of TIMSS, appropriate weights were included in the analyses at both levels. Footnote 7.

School system in The Netherlands

These results indicate that the used items reliably capture the underlying constructs of CM and SC as class-level constructs in all three educational systems. In modelling the CA scale some issues were encountered. First of all, some items had to be removed for the CFA model to converge. In Flanders and Germany, this was the case for item 6, an item relating to motivational aspects of math rather than CA by the teacher.

In Norway, items 1 and 4 had to be deleted for reasons of model convergence. Both items refer to the degree of task difficulty and in this may be closely linked to CA.

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Items 2, 5, and 7, however, do show high, positive and significant factor loadings at the between level in the three educational systems. Based on these results, multilevel EFA were performed to further investigate the data structure.

Solutions for three and four factors both at the within and between level were examined using Geomin rotation of the factor loading matrix. First, EFA provided evidence for CM and SC being two distinct factors in all three educational systems, both at the within and between level. Second, EFA confirmed item 6 to be an outlier: factor loadings were non-significant and below. Third, results of EFA i. There is also a content-driven reason to distinguish between these two components: CA 1 seems to relate closest to issues of CA of students by means of triggering higher order thinking , whereas CA 2 touches more upon issues of support for learning to see all CA-items, refer to Appendix.

However, whereas evidence for this four-factor structure of CM, SC, CA 1 and CA 2 is clearly found at the within level in all educational systems, results at the between level are less explicitly pronouncing the adequacy of this four-factor structure, with factor loadings on the between level of the third and fourth factor showing no clear factors to be distinguished.