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Publications on River Restoration in Europe. This page gathers the most interesting case studies, best practices and other relevant studies on River Restoration in Europe. Feel free to download the publications and share them among your network. Language s : English , Author s : David A. Sear, Malcolm D.
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Their discovery on the Mariner 9 images revealed morphologies that, despite the then-prevailing physical theory of a water-impoverished planet e. The name outflow channel was applied Sharp and Malin, because of the immense collapse areas of blocky, fractured terrain at the heads of the largest channels, including Kasei, Maja, Shalbatana, Simud, Tiu, and Ares Valles Fig.
The indicated immense flows of water were attributed to volcanic melting of ground ice McCauley et al. In published scientific papers over the seven or eight years following their discovery in , nearly every conceivable fluid was invoked to explain the Martian outflow channels. These included flows of lava Cutts et al. Motivation for these hypotheses derived from the perceived inconsistency with physical models of the Martian atmosphere e. However, all the various nonaqueous fluid-flow candidates had consequences for morphology and planetary history that could be evaluated against the facts that were known in regard to those consequences e.
This testing of hypotheses led to a general investigative community consensus in favor of the cataclysmic flooding hypothesis Mars Channel Working Group, ; Baker et al.
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Relationships for cataclysmic flooding features in Martian channels have since been reviewed in numerous publications e. After a hiatus of a couple of decades, a new generation of nonaqueous models has been resurrected, including the decompression of solid CO 2 Hoffman, and massive eruptions of very fluid lava Leovy, ; Leverington, , ; Leone, The CO 2 hypothesis of Hoffman predicted that Mars had always been so cold and dry that water never could have been liquid on its surface—a consequence clearly at odds with the immense number and variety of newly discovered features on Mars that are clearly associated with liquid water processes.
Urquhart and Gulick reviewed the plausibility of the White Mars hypothesis and concluded that the subsurface of Mars is unlikely to have been as cold as this model suggested and that liquid water would be present much closer to the surface than predicted by this hypothesis. The assumptions of the White Mars hypothesis regarding the globally averaged crustal heat flow are below most estimates for the current thermal state of the Martian crust and well below probable values.
Recently the term outflow channel has been applied to many features with very different morphologies than those associated with the original designation. In his model of massive outpourings of very fluid lava on the surface of Mars, Leverington applied the term not only to features associated with the original definition but to a great variety of large channel forms of volcanic origin, including lunar sinuous rilles see Section 2.
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Leone even applied the term outflow channel to the troughs of the Valles Marineris. Carr , pp. Nevertheless, as noted in Section 5, problems remain for relating the aqueous origins of fluvial features on Mars to the general theory of environmental change on the planet, but this poses a challenge to the theory—not to the realities of the fluvial features. The erosional and depositional bedforms of terrestrial catastrophic floods can be described according to a hierarchical classification of macroforms and mesoforms, as originally recognized in the Channeled Scabland Baker, b , b , c.
Some examples of erosionalmacro-scale forms are channel anastomosis, channels with low sinuosity and high channel width—depth ratios, large-scale streamlined residual hills, and scoured surfaces. Examples of depositional macroscale forms include the largest pendant bars, expansion bars, eddy bars, and fan complexes. Catastrophic floods also produce mesoscale forms, which have their scale controlled by flow depth in the channel. Some examples of erosional mesoscale forms include longitudinal grooves, cataracts, and inner channels.
Depositional mesoscale forms include large transverse bedforms fluvial dunes , smaller pendant bar forms, and slackwater depositional areas. Although the hierarchical arrangement of cataclysmic flooding landforms was originally recognized on Mars at scales considerably larger than what occurs in the Channeled Scabland e. In terrestrial catastrophic flooding examples the association of macroforms and superimposed mesoforms result from the nature of the flood hydrograph. For most continuously flowing rivers, flood hydrographs have a long recession phase.
The depositional bedforms that are stable at high flow stages meso-scale forms get washed out during the prolonged recessional phase, and post-flood surfaces preserve only the more stable macroscale forms, such as alternate bars. However, some catastrophic floods, such as those responsible for the Channeled Scabland Baker, , undergo an abrupt cessation of flood discharge, and this results in the preservation of many of the mesoscale forms e.
In contrast, other terrestrial catastrophic flood landscapes do not preserve mesoforms because of their more prolonged flow. The lack of fluvial dunes in many Mars catastrophic flooding channels may result from similarly prolonged flow phenomena. Examples of cataclysmic megaflooding landforms on Mars include channel anastomosis Fig. Detailed mapping and analysis of Ares Vallis locality A, Fig. These features are characteristic of macro form deposits in the Missoula megaflooding landscapes of the Channeled Scabland Baker, , b , c.
Detailed mapping of upper Ares Vallis using Mars Express HRSC data Pacifici showed the association of these depositional landforms with erosional landforms that are also typical of the Channeled Scabland, including longitudinal grooves, streamlined uplands, and cataracts. A spectacular example of the latter is about m high and 15 km wide Pacifici et al. The view is upstream, and the large crater in the center is Sharonov, which is km in diameter.
Note the splitting and convergence of channels anastomosis.
Streamlined features in Ares Vallis The cataclysmic flooding came from the lower right. Lins is the post-flooding, fresh looking crater in the lower right. The streamlined features probably developed by a combination of deposition and preservation of pre-flood bedrock downstream from obstructions to the cataclysmic flood flows.
There are also smaller-scaled lineated forms that may have developed as grooves or as depositional accumulations behind small obstructions. They are oriented longitudinally relative to the cataclysmic flood flows.
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Some intriguing transverse bedforms occur in the upper left quadrant of the image. These have orientations similar to what would be expected for subfluvial dunes, but at a spacing of about m they are even larger that would occurs in terrestrial cataclysmic flooding channels.
North is up in the figure. Expansion bar complex in Osuga Vallis. The view is downstream, and the channel width is about 20 km. The regional context for this image is shown in Fig.
bbmpay.veritrans.co.id/oimbra-citas-en-linea.php The downstream reaches of Ares Vallis are dominated by ice-related landforms that developed after the cataclysmic flooding phase Costard and Kargel, ; Costard and Baker, These include kame-like features and thermokarst depressions that occur in sediments overlying the cataclysmic flooding landforms Costard and Baker, ; Pacifici et al.
It is also clear from recent work Pacifici, ; Warner et al.